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328                        EXTINCT PIG-LIKE ANIMALS                       CtiAP.
has a slight naked  strip above   the nostrils, as in the Sheep, but
there is no fissure of the upper lip.
Extinct Families of Artiodactyla.
The origin of the Artiodaetyla is placed by Cope in the family
Pantolestidae,1 allied to the genus Protogonodon of the Condy-
larthra. As, however, this family is represented by but a few
back teeth and a fragment of the hind-foot, it seems premature to
regard it as the necessary starting-point of the Bunodont and
Ruminant groups.
Fam. Antliraeotheriidae.  This well-known and ancient
family consists of creatures of for the most part a Pig-like form,
with teeth approaching the selenodont shape, and a complete
lentifcion. The carpals, tarsalp, metaearpals, and metatarsals are
ill free. The toes are four (or five) to each foot, with the outer-
nost beginning to be reduced. These of course are all generalised
md primitive characters, pointing nowhere in particular, except, of
;ourse, to an Artiodactyle stock, on account of the teeth and the
.wo predominating toes.
The type genus of the family, A.nthracotheriit,m9 is not, as its
lame might seem to denote, a relic of the Carboniferous period;
ts remains were found in lignite, which may also show that it
ras at least semi-aquatic in habit. Its form, however, must
iave been. Pig-like, so at least one would presume from the
longated skull and shortish legs. There were species as great
s a BMnoceros, and smaller forms. The genus began in the
>ligocene ard continued down to the Pliocene. It is known
:ora Europe, Asia, and America.
The skull is long with a prominent sagittal cresb. The
icial part is also very long, and the orbits are not closed by a
any ring. The premolars are simple teeth; the molars dis-
nctly bunodont with a tendency in one or two to the seleno-
ont condition. The canines are powerful, as are also the
icisors. The scapula has been specially compared with that
F the CameL It has no acromion, which is usually though
ot always absent in Ungulates. An ally of the present animal,
r instance, the Hippopotamus, has the acromion developed,
he radius and ulna, the tibia and fibula, are all fully developed.
* Ttie name Triywwlgstes lias to be substituted